Aspects of Pre-colonial Economic Diplomacy in the Lower Cross River Region DOI: 10.36108/IJSI/2202.11.0110

Main Article Content

Uwem Jonah Akpan
Susan Ikwo Iseyen

Abstract

Relying on historical narrative methodology, this paper assesses economic diplomacy in the Cross River region during the pre-colonial period. The Cross River being the main artery and economic backbone of the region, rather than dividing the people served as a veritable instrument that facilitated trade and unity. In the process of deep interactions between the diverse groups, the Efifik people, because of their advantageous location at the estuary of the sea, established early contact with the Europeans and subsequently played a dominant role in the ensuing relations. In the process of economic interactions between groups in the region, diverse diplomatic methods such as negotiations, treaties, gifts, threats, marriage, money-lending, peace building and some symbols were employed. Also spheres of inflfluence were created by the major players. It should be noted that the paper particularly considers the interactions between the Efifik and the Umon, strategically located at the estuary, the middle of the Cross River and the Agwagune, who occupy the upper reaches of the river. It refutes the Eurocentric assertion that the people of the area and their pattern of relations were characterised by isolation, separateness and autonomy. It is discovered that the interference of the British in the politics and trade of the area and the imposition of colonialism resulted in the elimination of the African middle men. Indeed, the existing pre-colonial network became the foundation upon which the British enterprise in the region was foisted. This early contact should serve as a veritable roadmap for economic cooperation among the existing groups.

Article Details

How to Cite
Jonah Akpan, U. ., & Ikwo Iseyen, S. . (2022). Aspects of Pre-colonial Economic Diplomacy in the Lower Cross River Region: DOI: 10.36108/IJSI/2202.11.0110. Ibom Journal of Social Issues, 11(1), 1. Retrieved from https://ijsi.org.ng/index.php/home/article/view/19
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Articles
Author Biographies

Uwem Jonah Akpan, Department of History & International Studies

University of Uyo, Nigeria

 

Susan Ikwo Iseyen, Department of History

University of Preston, United States of America

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