Main Article Content

Samuel Ojima Adejoh
 Franca Attoh
Gabriel Aunde Akinbode
Peter Elias
Ajijola Abiodun


The main objective of this study was to examine the influence of socio-demographic characteristics, community characteristics and fear of crime on self-reported health status among residents in selected communities in Lagos, Nigeria. The study was conducted in four selected communities in Lagos, namely Mushin, Idi-Oro, Idi-Araba and Surulere. Cross-sectional design survey was used to select 799 respondents using stratified sampling technique. Data were analysed at univariate, bivariate and ordinal logistic regression using SPSS version 22.0. Majority of the respondents rated their self-reported health status as excellent to good. The findings show that education increases the chances of achieving excellent to good selfreported health status; that female respondent reported excellent to good self-reported health status compared to the male respondents Also, Christians and Muslims reported excellent to good self-reported
health status. Safely walking alone at night/day in the community positively affected self-reported health status. Fear of crime has direct relationship with self-reported health status. Sociodemographic, community characteristics and fear of crime influence self-reported health status. Policy on crime control should be specific at reducing fear of crime at individual and community levels to promote healthy individuals and communities. 

Article Details

How to Cite
Adejoh, S. O. ., Attoh, Franca., Akinbode, G. A. ., Elias, P. ., & Abiodun, A. . (2022). SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC, COMMUNITY CHARACTERISTICS AND FEAR OF CRIME AS CORRELATES OF SELF-REPORTED HEALTH STATUS IN LAGOS, NIGERIA: Ibom Journal of Social Issues, 11(2), 64–74. Retrieved from


Adler, N.E., Epel, E., Castellazzo, G., & Ickovics, J. (2000). Relationship of subjective and objective social status with psychological and physiological functioning: Preliminary data in healthy white women. Health Psychology, 19(6), 586-592. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.19.6.586

Bailis, D.S., Segall, A., & Chipperfield, J.G. (2003). Two views of self-rated general health status. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 203–217. doi:10.1016/s0277-9536(02)00020-5

Bethune, R., Absher, N., Obiagwu, M., Qarmout, T., Steeves, M., & Yaghoubi, M. (2018). Social determinants of self-reported health for Canada’s indigenous peoples: a public health approach. Public Health; doi: 10.1016/j.puhe.2018.03.007.

Boynton-Jarrett, R., Ryan, L.M., Berkman, L.F., & Wright, R.J. (2008). Cumulative violence exposure and self-rated health: longitudinal study of adolescents in the United States. Pediatrics 122, 961–970

Dai, Y., Zhang, C.Y., & Zhang, B.Q. (2016). Social support and the self-rated health of older people: a comparative study in Tainan Taiwan and Fuzhou Fujian province [J]. Medicine.;95 (24):e3881.

Ferraro, K. F., Farmer, M. M., & Wybraniec, J. A. (1997). Health trajectories: Long-term dynamics among black and white adults. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 38, 38–54. doi:10.2307/2955360

Ferraro, K.F. (1995). Fear of Crime: Interpreting Victimization Risk. SUNY Press, New York.

Finch, B. K., Hummer, R. A., Reindl, M., & Vega, W. A. (2002). Validity of self-rated health among Latino(a)s. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155, 755–759. doi:10.1093/aje/155.8.755

Fowler, P.J., Tompsett, C.J., Braciszewski, J.M., Jacques-Tiura, A.J., & Baltes, B.B. (2009). Community violence: a meta-analysis on the effect of exposure and mental health outcomes of children and adolescents. Development and Psychopathology 21, 227–259.

Ghaed, S.G., & Gallo, L.C. (2007). Subjective social status, objective socioeconomic status, and cardiovascular risk in women. Health Psychology, 26(6), 668-674. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.26.6.668

Go´mez, J.E., Johnson, B.A., Selva, M., & Sallis, J.F. (2004). Violent crime and outdoor physical activity among inner-city youth. Preventive Medicine 39, 876–881

Hanslmaier, M. (2013). Crime, fear and subjective well-being: How victimization and street crime affect fear and life satisfaction. European Journal of Criminology, 10(5), 515–533.

Idler, E.L., & Benyamini, Y. (1997) Self-rated health and mortality: a review of twenty seven community studies. J Health Soc Behav.; 38(1):21–37.

Johansson, M., Flykt, A., Frank, J., and Stoen, O.G. (2019) Controlled exposure reduces fear of brown be rs. Hum. Dimens. Wildi 24, 363-379. Doi:10.1080/10871209.2019.1616238

Jylhä, M. (2009). What is self-rated health and why does it predict mortality? Towards a unified conceptual model. Social Science and Medicine, 69, 307–316. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.05.013

Kuosmanen, K., Rovio, S., Kivipelto, M., Tuomilehto, J., & Nissinen, A. (2016) Determinants of self-rated health and self-rated physical fitness in middle and old age [J]. European Journal of Mental Health.; 11(1–02):128–43.

Lane, J., Rader, N., Henson, B., Fisher, B., May, D. (2014). Fear of crime in the United State: Causes, consequences, and contradictions. Carolina Academic Press.

Lorenc, T., Clayton, S., Neary, D., Whitehead, M., Petticrew, M., & Thomson, H. (2012). Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: Mapping review of theories and causal pathways.

Luo, Y., & Waite, L.J., (2005). The impact of childhood and adult SES on physical, mental, and cognitive well-being in later life. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci.; 60(2):S93-101.

Manderbacka, K., Lahelma, E., & Martikainen, P. (1998). Examining the continuity of self-rated health. Int J Epidemiol.; 27(2):208–13.

McDonald, N.C. (2008). The effect of objectively measured crime on walking in minority adults. American Journal of Health Promotion 22, 433–436

McEwen, B.S. (1998). Stress, adaptation and disease: allostasis and allostatic load. Annals New York Academy of Sciences

Messer, L., Kaufman, J., Dole, N., Herring, A., & Laraia, B. (2006). Violent crime exposure classificatio and adverse birth outcomes: a geographically-defined cohort study. International Journal of Health Geographics 5, 22

Olofsson, N., Lindkvist, K., & Danielsson, L. (2012). Fear of crime and psychological and physical abuse associated with health in a Swedish population aged 65-84 years. Public Health; 126:358-64.

Oterhals, K., Haaverstad, R., Nordrehaug, J.E., Eide, G.E., & Norekva˚l, T.M. (2017). Self-reported health status, treatment decision and survival in asymptomatic and symptomatic patients with aortic stenosis in a Western Norway population undergoing conservative treatment: a cross-sectional study with 18 months follow-up. BMJ Open; 7:e016489.

Ou, J.Y., Peters, J.L., Levy, J.I., Bongiovanni, R., Rossini, A., & Scammell M.K. (2018). Self-rated health and its association with perceived environmental hazards, the social environment, and cultural stressors in an environmental justice population BMC Public Health [Electronic Resource], 18 p. 970

Pearson, A.L., & Breetzke, G.D. (2014) The association between the fear of crime, and mental and physical wellbeing in New Zealand. Soc Indicators; 119:281-94

Phelan, J. C., Link, B. G., & Tehranifar, P. (2010). Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: Theory, evidence, and policy implications. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 51(1 suppl), S28–S40

Phelan, J.C., Link, B.G., & Tehranifar, P. (2010). Social conditions as fundamental causes of health inequalities: theory, evidence, and policy implications. J Health Soc Behav.; 51(S1):S28-40. 46510383498.

Rogot, E., Sorlie, P.D., & Johnson, N.J. (1992). A mortality study of 1.3 million persons by demographic, social and economic factors: 1979–1985 follow-up. NIH publication no. 92–3297. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Health.

Rubin, M.S., Colen, C.G., Link, B.G. (2010). Examination of inequalities in HIV/AIDS mortality in the United States from a fundamental cause perspective. Am J Public Health. 100(6):1053–1059.

Stafford, M., Chandola, T., & Marmot, M. (2007). Association between fear of crime and mental health and physical functioning. Am J Public Health;97:2076-81.

Sundquist, K., Theobald, H., Yang, M., Li, X., Johansson, & S.E., Sundquist, J. (2006). Neighbourhood violent crime and unemployment increase the risk of coronary heart disease: a multilevel study in an urban setting. Social Science and Medicine 62, 2061–2071.

Trachte, F., Geyer, S., & Sperlich, S. (2016). Impact of physical activity on self-rated health in older people: do the effects vary by socioeconomic status?[J]. J Public Health. 38(4):754-59.

Van der Meer, J.B.W., & Mackenbach, J.P. (1998). Course of health status among chronically ill persons: diVerentials according to level of education. J Clin Epidemiol; 51:171–9.

Von dem Knesebeck, O., & Geyer, S. (n.d). Emotional support, education and self-rated health in 22 European coun

Warr, M., and Stafford, M. (1983) Fear of Victimization: A Look at the Proximate Causes. Social Forces, Volume 61, Issue 4, June 1983, Pages 1033–1043,

Wilkinson, R.G., Kawachi, I., & Kennedy, B.P. (1998). Mortality, the social environment, crime and violence. Sociology of Health and Illness 20, 578–597.

World Health Organization. (1996). Health interview surveys: Towards international harmonization of methods and instruments. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Office for Europe.

Zajacova, A., & Dowd, J.B. (2011). Reliability of self-rated health in US adults. Am J Epidemiol. 174(8):977–83.